Indeed, today it is known that the world’s atmosphere consists of different layers that lie on top of each other. Furthermore, it consists, just as is described in the Qur’an, of exactly seven layers. In a scientific source, the subject is described as follows:
Scientists have found that the atmosphere consists of several layers. The layers differ in such physical properties as pressure and the types of gasses. The layer of the atmosphere closest to Earth is called the TROPOSPHERE. It contains about 90% of the total mass of the atmosphere. The layer above the troposphere is called the STRATOSPHERE. The OZONE LAYER is the part of the stratosphere where absorption of ultraviolet rays occurs. The layer above the stratosphere is called the MESOSPHERE. The THERMOSPHERE lies above the mesosphere. The ionized gases form a layer within the thermosphere called the IONOSPHERE. The outermost part of Earth’s atmosphere extends from about 480 km out to 960 km. This part is called the EXOSPHERE.
(Carolyn Sheets, Robert Gardner, Samuel F. Howe; General Science, Allyn and Bacon Inc. Newton, Massachusetts, 1985, p. 319-322)
If we count the number of layers cited in this source, we see that the atmosphere consists of exactly seven layers, just as stated in the verse.
One of these functions, for example, is stated in a scientific source as follows:
Earth’s atmosphere has 7 layers. The lowest layer is called troposphere. Rain, snow and wind only take place in the troposphere.